Menus and settings - Main window and Grid
Menus and settings - Main window and Grid
- select the number of functional elements, from a minimum of 100 to as many as your system's memory allows (even something like 700,000 and upwards);
- select the number of sources that are meant to transmit to the rest of elements;
- divide the sources and/or the rest into regions;
- select the probability levels for each region;
- select static probability levels or allow them to self-adjust as the system keeps cycling and thereby changes the activation levels for the individual elements;
- select cycle limits - overall, consecutive increments, or when a particular activation level has been reached;
- observe the effects across the whole system as clusters form and view their changing activation levels as they send and receive, given the selected criteria;
- use CauseF to simulate real-world scenarios, such as the spreading of a disease across a population under various conditions, having carriers, recipients, mitigating and/or exacerbating influences acting on the members and/or regions (any scenario can be simulated provided its definitions can be transposed across to CauseF meaningfully).
But mainly, observe how in such a system the range of probable outcomes can be determined while at the same time any element's specific status cannot (a real-world equivalent would be the weather).
A more detailed explanation can be found under General. Here are a few key points for your consideration.
On the Grid the source elements are displayed in dark red when inactive, or in bright red if active. The target elements are displayed in grey (activation level 0), or in shades of green (activation level 1 darkest, activation level 9 brightest).
Clicking on Start on the grid display once the overall cycle limit has been reached and no repeat cycle limit has been set always advances the system by one cycle only.
The mutual proximity of units on the Grid does not matter when it comes to their activation and/or probability levels.
The activation levels of the units are not the same as their probability levels and are not directly influenced by them.
There could be a possible problem with rendering the gaps between units when small thicknesses have been selected (this does not occur when the gap is 0). The reason is the very fast rendering method used for going through the cycles in a reasonable time; it does not affect the operation of the system.
The rendering of the regions display takes longer when a large number of units is selected.
Although more than 100 regions for the sources and the targets can be selected in theory (provided there are sufficient numbers of them in the first place), effectively this would be useless because there only 100% for the probability levels available. Therefore there would have to be repetitions across the regions.
The region settings for source and target can be used to fine-tune the increments and decrements under self-adjustment if the regions are set at certain probability levels, especially when the first half are decrements and the second one are increments (for more details see General).
CauseF represents a way to visualise the effects of probabilities. See Examples of scenarios for more details about the nature of CauseF vs other software designed for probability calculations.
File - Settings - Grid / Spheres / Planets (Ctrl+O)
Opens the Settings window.
File - Options - Planets
Opens the Options window for changing the default settings applicable to Planets.
View - Show Grid (Alt+G)
Opens the Grid window.
View - Show Grid Regions (Alt+R)
Opens the Regions window with the source and target members of the regions displayed by number and each member's probability level. For reasons of efficiency, if there are more than 5000 members every 1000th member is shown, if there are more than 50,000 members every 10,000th member is shown.
View - Show Spheres (Alt+S)
Opens the Spheres window.
View - Show Planets (Alt+P)
Opens the Planets window.
About - CauseF Manual
Link to what you are reading now.
About - Otoom website
Link to the Otoom website home page.
About - About CauseF
Shows version number and links to the Otoom website and this Manual.
Starts the grid cycles. If the menu is disabled click Reset first.
Stops the grid cycles. The Grid remains in the current state.
Essentially resets the system to accommodate whatever new settings have been selected. Any change to the settings belonging to the groups Miscellaneous and Cycles, while requiring a Reset, leaves the other values as they are (they are back once Start is clicked). The system continues where it left off. If you want to restart the system with the settings intact but the parameters reset to 0, put the cursor in an entry box such as Total number of elements (top-left), simply press Enter and then Reset. This resets all the values to 0 and you can start afresh with the current settings.
Closes the Grid window. Leaves the current settings intact.
Number of elem's (per row) - the total number of units making up the Grid (how many per row). The grid is always a square.
Cycle - current cycle number.
Max number of elem's at activation level [*] - the maximum number of target elements at that activation level that has been reached at any cycle up to the current one; shows when Max level is clicked in Settings window.
Current number of elem's at activation level [*] - the current number of target elements at that activation level during the current cycle; shows when Current level is clicked in Settings window.
Settings - self-adjust protocol
How many units (source plus target elements) can be selected for the Grid ultimately depends on the available memory on your computer. If more than 70,000 units have been selected in Total number of elements a warning message comes up. If you do not accept, the number is automatically reset to a value just below 70,000. If you do accept you may continue, but at still higher numbers a final warning message could appear should the memory check indicate a potential out-of-memory problem.
File - Load Settings (Ctrl+L)
Load previously saved setting parameters from a *.cauf file, including the states of the grid's units at the time of saving.
File - Save Settings (Ctrl+S)
Save setting parameters to a *.cauf file, including the states of the grid's units at the time.
File - Save Settings As
Save setting parameters to a new *.cauf file, including the states of the grid's units at the time.
File - Reset Settings (Ctrl+R)
Reset the settings to their default values, all the unit states start from 0.
Total number of elements
How many elements the Grid should contain (adjusted to form a square).
Source elements - Number of source elements
How many source elements the Grid should contain. The maximum number is Total number of elements - 10.
Source elements - Density
If Auto directly below is clicked the source elements will be placed automatically from the center outwards, spaced according to this value. If 0 one source is placed right next to the other, if 1 they are spaced one element apart, etc.
Source elements - Source
If Manual directly below is clicked each source (the first, the second, etc) is placed on the Grid where the Element ID identifies the location. For example, if Element ID is set to 480 with Source set to 1 the first source will be placed at the location of the 480th element on the Grid.
Probability regions and % - Source - Number of regions
How many regions the total number of sources should be divided into (any remainder is assigned to the last region). The maximum is the total number of sources.
Probability regions and % - Source - Region
Region number for the sources.
Probability regions and % - Source - %
The probability level for all members of the selected source region. If set to 0 that region is effectively inactive and therefore does not send at all.
Probability regions and % - Target - Number of regions
How many regions the total number of targets should be divided into (any remainder is assigned to the last region). The maximum is the total number of elements minus total number of sources.
Probability regions and % - Target - Region
Region number for the targets.
Probability regions and % - Target - %
The probability level for all members of the selected target region. If set to 0 that region does not send at all but can receive.
Opens the Regions window (see below).
Miscellaneous - Size of elements (pixels)
The size of the elements on the Grid. Can be used to reduce the Display window to fit the monitor when dealing with very large numbers of elements.
Miscellaneous - Gap between elements (pixels)
How far apart the elements on the Grid are placed. If set at 2 or 3 the rendering may not always be accurate (ie, some sections appear bulky) because a very fast rendering method is used to keep the cycle times at manageable proportions.
Miscellaneous - Activation level to track on grid
The number of elements the Grid should display at the given activation level. If Max level is clicked the maximum number of target elements at that activation level that has been reached at any cycle up to the current one is shown. If Current level is clicked the current number of target elements at that activation level during the current cycle is shown. Therefore, at Max level the numbers on the Grid display are only increasing once a new maximum has been reached, whereas at Current level the numbers are going up or down depending on the state of the respective elements.
Cycles - Cycle time (milliseconds)
If set to anything above 0 a delay of so many milliseconds between each cycle is inserted. This is in addition to the time it takes to complete a cycle. If set to 0 there is no delay and the cycles take as long as required to complete all the calculations.
Cycles - Cycle limit
If set to anything above 0 the cycling will stop when that number of cycles has been reached. If set to 0 there is no limit. Once the limit has been reached, clicking on Start in the Grid window will advance the system by one cycle each time. Ineffective if Repeat cycle limit (see below) is set to a value above 0.
Cycles - Repeat cycle limit
If set to a value above 0 the system will cycle for that many cycles every time Start in the Grid window is clicked and then come to a stop. For example, first setting Cycle limit to 10,000 will take the system through 10,000 cycles, then setting Repeat cycle limit to 1000 will add another 1000 cycles with each click of Start. If Cycle limit and Repeat cycle limit are set together the system will cycle to 1000 and then stop every time. Note: although Reset in the Grid window needs to be clicked after changing the cycle limit values and the Grid goes back to its original state, clicking Start will display the elements' states as they were before the change.
Cycles - Cycle limit at activation level
If ticked the system will halt as soon as an element has reached the activation level set at Activation level to track on grid. Max level must be selected first. This setting overrides any other cycle limits. Once the limit has been reached further clicks on Start will advance the system by one cycle each. If unticked the other cycle limits will come into effect again.
Probability levels self-adjustment - Self-adjustment ON
If ticked the probability levels for source and/or target regions will self-adjust according to the further settings.
Probability levels self-adjustment - Source - Region
Sets the region number whose probability steps are to be set. The maximum is the Number of regions set under Probability regions and % and ultimately depends on the Number of source elements set under Source elements.
Probability levels self-adjustment - Source - Probability up/down step
Sets the increment and/or decrement by which the probability level is meant to self-adjust. For example, if set to 3 the probability percentage will go from say, 20, to 23, 26, 29, etc if going up. If Reverse ON is not ticked, then the probability level will increment if it is at 50% and above, and decrement if it is at less than 50%. This applies to each cycle, which means in this case that the levels increase towards 100% as soon as they are at or above 50%, and decrease if the levels are at less than 50%. If Reverse ON is ticked, any level above 50% will move downwards to 50%, and any level below 50% will move upwards to 50%. Therefore without Reverse ON a flight towards the extremes is induced, with Reverse ON the levels will flatten around the 50% mark (by how much they fluctuate depends on the step selected - smaller steps cause small fluctuations, larger ones make for a wider range). It is possible to view the probability levels for the regions at any time by clicking Show regions to open the Regions window (it is recommended to stop the cycling first).
Probability levels self-adjustment - Source - Reverse ON
See above under Probability levels self-adjustment - Source - Probability up/down step.
Probability levels self-adjustment - Target - Region
Probability levels self-adjustment - Target - Probability up/down step
Probability levels self-adjustment - Target - Reverse ON
The same applies to the target regions, see the respective entries under their Source versions.
Using the self-adjust protocol allows for complex scenarios involving several source and target regions with their adjustment steps configured such that they interact with each other depending on the aggregate state of the system. More on this can be found under Examples of scenarios.
Note: the probability levels should not be confused with the activation levels. Setting the probability level of a source to 10% for example simply means the source in that region has a 10% chance of selecting a target. Its activation level is unaffected however.
The sources and the targets are displayed with their region number and probability level. For reasons of efficiency, if there are more than 5000 units every 1000th of them is shown, if there are more than 50,000 units every 10,000th of them is shown.
Displays the current state of the source and target regions.
The Settings and Regions windows can be closed with the Esc key.